Title: Overview of Research on ACO Performance

Author: NAACOS

Abstract: This resource summarizes some of the key quantitative studies that contribute to our understanding about the positive effect of ACOs. Please email us at to suggest additional research that should be added to this document.

Source: NAACOS

Source Date: May 2017

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Title: Housing, Transportation, And Food: How ACOs Seek To Improve Population Health By Addressing Nonmedical Needs of Patients

Author: Taressa Fraze, Valerie A. Lewis, Hector P. Rodriguez and Elliott S. Fisher

Abstract: Addressing nonmedical needs—such as the need for housing—is critical to advancing population health, improving the quality of care, and lowering the costs of care. Accountable care organizations (ACOs) are well positioned to address these needs. We used qualitative interviews with ACO leaders and site visits to examine how these organizations addressed the nonmedical needs of their patients, and the extent to which they did so. We developed a typology of medical and social services integration among ACOs that disentangles service and organizational integration. We found that the nonmedical needs most commonly addressed by ACOs were the need for transportation and housing and food insecurity. ACOs identified nonmedical needs through processes that were part of the primary care visit or care transformation programs. Approaches to meeting patients’ nonmedical needs were either individualized solutions (developed patient by patient) or targeted approaches (programs developed to address specific needs). As policy makers continue to provide incentives for health care organizations to meet a broader spectrum of patients’ needs, these findings offer insights into how health care organizations such as ACOs integrate themselves with nonmedical organizations.

Source: Health Affairs

Source Date: November 2016

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Title: Changes in Health Care Spending and Quality for Medicare Beneficiaries Associated With A Commercial ACO Contract

Author: McWilliams JM, Landon BE, Chernew ME

Abstract: In a multipayer system, new payment incentives implemented by one insurer for an accountable care organization (ACO) may also affect spending and quality of care for another insurer's enrollees served by the ACO. Such spillover effects reflect the extent of organizational efforts to reform care delivery and can contribute to the net impact of ACOs.

Source: JAMA

Source Date: August 2013

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Title: When New Medicare Payment Systems Collide

Author: Robert E. Mechanic, MBA

Abstract/Introduction: Since 2012, the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has introduced more than a dozen new Medicare payment models. Most of them emanate from the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation (CMMI), whose strategy is to launch various initiatives, evaluate them rapidly, and expand those that reduce spending without harming quality of care. 

Source: NEJM

Source Date: May 2016

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